domingo, octubre 31, 2010

Oyendo reflexiones sobre el software futuro

Mencionado por Jean Bezivin en Twitter: algunas reflexiones de Michael Nygard acerca del futuro del desarrollo de software, que suenan razonables, aunque quizá a Java le reste más (y mejor) recorrido que el que Michael estima. Lo fundamental, la computación móvil y su asociada, la "computación en la nube", aparecen forzando la marcha según sus requerimientos:
  • Two obvious trends are cloud computing and mobile access. They are complementary. As the number of people and devices on the net increases, our ability to shape traffic on the demand side gets worse. Spikes in demand will happen faster and reach higher levels over time. Mobile devices exacerbate the demand side problems by greatly increasing both the number of people on the net and the fraction of their time they are able to access it.
  • Large traffic volumes both create and demand large data. Our tools for processing tera- and petabyte datasets will improve dramatically. Map/Reduce computing (a la Hadoop) has created attention and excitement in this space, but it is ultimately just one tool among many. We need better languages to help us think and express large data problems. In particular, we need a language that makes big data processing accessible to people with little background in statistics or algorithms.
  • Speaking of languages, many of the problems we face today cannot be solved inside a single language or application. The behavior of a web site today cannot be adequately explained or reasoned about just by examining the application code. Instead, a site picks up attributes of behavior from a multitude of sources: application code, web server configuration, edge caching servers, data grid servers, offline or asynchronous processing, machine learning elements, active network devices (such as application firewalls), and data stores. "Programming" as we would describe it today--coding application behavior in a request handler--defines a diminishing portion of the behavior. We lack tools or languages to express and reason about these distributed, extended, fragmented systems. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the functionality, performance, capacity, scalability, and availability of these systems.
  • Some of this will be mitigated naturally as application-specific functions disappear into tools and frameworks. Companies innovating at the leading edge of scalability today are doing things in application-specific behavior to compensate for deficiencies in tools and platforms. For example, caching servers could arguably disappear into storage engines and no-one would complain. In other words, don't count the database vendors out yet. You'll see key-value stores and in-memory data grid features popping up in relational databases any day now.
  • In general, it appears that Objects will diminish as a programming paradigm. Object-oriented programming will still exist... I'm not claiming "the death of objects" or something silly like that. However, OO will become just one more paradigm among several, rather than the dominant paradigm it has been for the last 15 years. "Object oriented" will no longer be synonymous with "good".
  • Some people have talked about "polyglot programming". I think this is a red herring. Polylgot is a reality, but it should not be a goal. That is, programmers should know many languages and paradigms, but deliberately mixing languages in a single application should be avoided. What I think we will find instead is mixing of paradigms, supported by a single primary language, with adjunct languages used only as needed for specialized functions. For example, an application written in Scala may mix OO, functional, and actor-based concepts, and it may have portions of behavior expressed in SQL and Javascript. Nevertheless, it will still primarily be a Scala application. The fact that Groovy, Scala, Clojure, and Java all run on Java Virtual Machine shouldn't mislead us into thinking that they are interchangeable... or even interoperable!
  • Regarding Java. I fear that Java will have to be abandoned to the "Enterprise Development" world. It will be relegated to the hands of cut-rate business coders bashing out their gray business applications for $30 / hour. We've passed the tipping point on this one. We used to joke that Java would be the next COBOL, but that doesn't seem as funny now that it's true. Java will continue to exist. Millions of lines of it will be written each year. It won't be the driver of innovation, though. As individual programmers, I'd recommend that you learn another language immediately and differentiate yourself from the hordes of low-skill, low-rent outsource coders that will service the mainstream Java consumer.
  • To my great surprise, data storage has become a hotbed of innovation in the last few years. Some of this is driven by the high-scalability fetishists, which is probably the wrong reason for 98% of companies and teams. However, innovations around column stores, graph databases, and key-value stores offer developers new tools to reduce the impedance mismatch between their data storage and their programming language. We spent twenty years trying to squeeze objects into relational databases. Aside from the object databases, which were an early casualty of Oracle's ascension, we mostly focused on changing the application code through framework after framework and ORM after ORM. It's refreshing to see storage models that are easier to use and easier to modify.

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